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Handling of bi-directional texts

2nd edition, June 1992

This Ecma Technical Report specifies technical means to handle bi-directional text in character-imaging devices in case of:

  • texts in a single script of which specific parts need to be presented in an opposite direction (for example, numbers in Arabic or Hebrew);
  • texts in different scripts presented in opposite directions (like Latin and Arabic or Latin and Hebrew);
  • texts presented with a horizontal line orientation and a top-to-bottom line progression.

Other presentation directions may be the subject of further studies.

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Technical CommitteeTC1 (this TC is no longer active)


  • ECMA TR/53, 1st edition, December 1990Download